Friday, March 22, 2013

Livy: The Caudine Forks, 321 B.C. - from Per Saecula Part One, Prose (modified Livy)

1.  Gaius Pontius, the commander of the Samnites, with the army having been led out, placed the camp as secretly (occultus) as possible round about (circa) the Caudine Forks.  From there he sent ten soldiers dressed as shepherds to Calatiam where he heard that the Roman counsels and camp were already and ordered them to graze their cattle not far from the Roman garrison (praesidium).  Having been captured, the captives said that the legions of the Samnites were in Apulia and were besieging Lucernia with many troops.  This story had already come to the Romans, having been diligently spread among the people already, but the captives increased their trust in it,
especially because their talk agreed among them all. 

Maxime: especially
Vulgatus (3): spread among the people, common
Augeo (2) auxi, auctum: increase
Sermo: speach, talk, conversation
Congruo (3): fit, agree, correspond
Inter: between, among, during
Vulgo (1): prostitute, spread around the multitude, publish, circulate

2.  Pontius had it for certain that the Romans were going to carry help to the Lucernians, good and faithful allies, lest all of Apulia should revolt (deficio); the only thing uncertain was which way they would go. Two roads lead to Lucernia, one along the shore (ora) of the sea and laying open, but as much as it is safer as it is generally (fere) longer; the other through the Caudine Forks.  But this place is to be found as follows: there are two high passes, narrow and wooded, joined to each other by continous surrounding hills.  Between them lies a grassy, watery field, open enough but closed off in the middle, through which lies a road.  But before you come to this, the first narrow pass must be entered and (to exit) either you must retrace (repeto) your way backwards or, if you proceed forward, you must go out (evado) another more narrow (artus) and difficult (impeditus) pass.       

(Ops), opis (no nominative): means, help, power; pl. wealth, resources
Deficio (2) defessi, defessum:  fail, faint, revolt
Fero (3): bear, carry, suffer, say, lead (of a road)
Praeter: beyond, except, along, past, contrary to
Quantus...tantus: as
Fere: almost, generally
Nascor, i, natus sum: be born, be found
Perpetuus (3): continuus, in unbroken sequence
Circa: round, round about
Pergo (3): go on, proceed
Angustiae, arum pl: narrow pass, defile
Evado (3): go out, come out, escape
Artus (3): tight, close fitting

3. The Romans decided to go this way.  When they descended into the field they immediately proceeded to one (alius) of the defiles and found that it was blocked off with huge rocks and trees.  Just as the hostile deception became apparent to them the enemy garrison also appeared  at the top of the pass.  From there they were summoned backwards the way they had came and proceeded to retrace their path - this they also found blocked.  After that they halted pace without orders (imperium) of any kind.  Stupefaction held the minds of all.  Looking from one to another, they were motionless and silent for a long time.  Then the legates and tribunes assembled (convenio) before the wretched consuls and the soldiers demanded from these two help which (even) the immortal gods could scarcely carry to them. 

Protinus: right on, forthwith, immediately
Saepio (4): close, seal off, encircle, enclose, block up
Appareo(3): appear
Cito (1): make to hasten, summon, cite
Sisto (3): place, stop
Gradus, us: step, pace, degree, rank
Stupor (3): stupefaction
Maestus (3): mournful, sorrowful
Conspicio (3): catch sight of, see
Inde: from that place, time, after that
Saltus: pass, ravine

4.  Not even the Samnites knew what to do under such happy circumstances, so they consulted by letter with Herenius Pontius, the father of their commander.  Now he, heavy with years, had departed not only from military but also civilian duties; neverthess his force (vis) of mind and policy (consilium) was strong. When he learned that the Roman army was closed off between two passes, having been consulted by his son's messenger, he thought they should all be sent away from there as quickly as possible.  When these views were spurned and again he was consulted he proposed that they should all be killed to a man.  But neither opinion was adopted. 

Laetus (3): happy, joyful, glad
Sperno, spernere, sprevi, spretus: scorn, despise, spurn
Munus eris n: duty, gift, honor, public spectacle
Abscedo (3): leave, depart from
Vigeo (2): be strong
Consilium n: plan, policy, strategem
Accipio (3): recieve, hear, learn
Consulo (3): consult, advise, ask information of, deliberate
Censeo (2): think, propose

5.  When in vain many attempts (conatus) to break out were attempted (capio) and there was now a scarcity (inopia) of all supplies, by necessity the conquered Romans sent emissaries to seek out (qui + subjuntive to express purpose) a favorable (aequus) peace.  Pontius responded that the conflict had been fought to a finish and that he would send out the Romans under the yoke with a single garment; if they left the territory of the Samnites and their settlements were led away then Rome and Samnia would live according to their own laws under a favorable treaty.  Under these conditions he was prepared to strike a treaty with the consuls.  When news of these conditions were brought back a groan suddenly rose up from all.  There was then a long silence, since they were able neither to speak out (hisco) in favor of a treaty so base nor against one so neccesary.     

Inopia: need, lack, scarcity
Aequus: equal, level, fair, just, favorable
Debello (1): fight to the finish
Decedo (3): go down, leave
Abduco (3):  lead away
Colonia: colony, settlement
Ferio (4): Strike
Hisco (3): yawn, gape, open
Renuntio (4): bring back news

6.  At last the consuls set out to Pontius for a conference (colloquium), and when the victor was discussing the treaty they protested that it could not take place without the order of the people.  And so not, as the crowd believed, by treaty, but through a solemn pledge, a peace at Caudium was made.  The consuls, legates, quaestors, and tribunes of the soldiers made a solemn pledge, and the names of all who pledged were on record.  Hostages and also six hundred (sescenti) cavalrymen were demanded who would pay with their heads if the pact did not stand.  A time was then established (statuo) for handing over the hostages and sending the unarmed army under the yoke.     

Colloquium:  conversation, conference
Agito (1): keep on doing, discuss
Iniussi adv: without the order
Sponsio (3): solmemn promise
Spondeo (3): pledge, promise
Exsto (1): stand out,be left, be on record
Luo, luere, lui, lutus(3): pay, pay fine, suffer punishment as expiation
Sto (1): stand, be at anchor
Statuo (3):  set up, determine, fix
Impero (1): + dat. to order, command; + acc. to demand

7.  The arrival of the consuls renewed the grief in the camps, such that they were scarcely able to restrain their hands from those whose rashness had led them down to that place.  To look at each other; to reflect that their arms were soon (mox) to be handed over and their fighting hands go unarmed; to place before their eyes the enemy yolk, the ridicule of the victor, their haughty faces and beneath their arms to make an unarmed march (iter); and from there to make their wretched way in a detestable column through the cities of their allies and return to their parents in their fatherland: only themselves, without wound, without sword, without having been conquered in battle; not allowed to draw out their swords nor to join battle (manus) with the enemy.

Luctus, us: grief morning  
Redintegro (1): renew
Abstineo (3):  restrain, keep from
Intueor, eri, tuitus sum: look on or at, see
Contemplor (1) ponder, reflect, survey
Confero (3): carry with, compare, content
Propono (3): put forward, propose
Foedus (3): foul, detestabe
Agmen n: column, rank
Redeo (3): return

8.  Now with a single garment they were ordered to go outside the walls and the first hostages were handed over and led away into custody.  Then the lictors were ordered to depart from the consuls and their cloaks (paludamentum) were stripped off.  The counsels were the first sent under the yoke almost half-naked, then each man according to their rank (ut quisque gradu proximus erat), then at last (deinceps) the seperate (singulus) legions.  The armed enemy stood around reproaching and mocking them.  And so having been lead across under the yoke they came out of the ravine.  Although they were able to arrive at Capua before nightfall they were uncertain of the loyalty of their allies and because they were hindered by their shame, round about (circa) the road not far from Capua they threw their bodies on the ground.            

Detraho (3): remove, pull off
Prope: prep + acc near; adv. nearly, almost
Exprobo (1): reproach
Traduco (3): lead across
Prosterno, ere, stravi, statum (3): throw on the ground

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